Rock Art Dating and the Peopling of the Americas

We investigated rock varnish, a thin, manganese- and iron-rich, dark surface crust, on basaltic lava flows and petroglyphs in the Owens and Rose Valleys California by portable X-ray fluorescence pXRF and femtosecond laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry fs-LA-ICPMS. The major element composition of the varnish was consistent with a mixture of Mn-Fe oxyhydroxides and clay minerals. As expected, it contained elevated concentrations of elements that are typically enriched in rock varnish, e. The rare earth and yttrium REY enrichment pattern revealed a very strong positive cerium Ce anomaly and distinct negative europium Eu and Y anomalies. These enrichment patterns are consistent with a formation mechanism by leaching of Mn and trace elements from aeolian dust, reprecipitation of Mn and Fe as oxyhydroxides, and scavenging of trace elements by these oxyhydroxides. We inferred accumulation rates of Mn and Fe in the varnish from their areal densities measured by pXRF and the known ages of some of the lava flow surfaces. The areal densities of Mn and Fe, as well as their accumulation rates, were comparable to our previous results from the desert of Saudi Arabia. There was a moderate dependence of the Mn areal density on the inclination of the rock surfaces, but no relationship to its cardinal orientation. We attempted to use the degree of varnish regrowth on the rock art surfaces as an estimate of their age.

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Rock varnish microlamination VML dating uses the slow buildup of ‘varnish’ or dark coating on subaerially exposed rock surfaces. It is particularly well preserved and therefore useful in arid and semi-arid regions. Dark layers in varnish are rich in Mn and Ba, but poor in Si and Al. Orange and yellow layers are poor in Mn and Ba, rich in Si and Al. There is also a growing body of evidence that indicates varnish microstratigraphy carries climate record: Mn-poor yellow layers formed during dry periods, Mn-rich black layers deposited during wet periods.

Varnish microlamination dating yields ages of 13·15 ka for intermediate fan surfaces and 25·55 to 86·75 ka for stable fan surfaces.

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Desert Varnish as a Paleoclimate Proxy

Naturalis Historia. Anyone who has spent time in a desert has probably noticed many dark streaks or patches on the rocks. I expect that most people simply look at these dark streaks and think they are simply stains like a stain on a cement driveway or that line of rust color running down a wall from a […]. Sign me up!

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How is Rock Art Dated?

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Ronald Dorn. After recognition that debris flows co-occur with human activities, the next step in a hazards analysis involves estimating debris-flow probability. Prior research published in this journal in used varnish microlamination VML dating to determine a minimum occurrence of 5 flows per century over the last years in a small mountain range of South Mountain adjacent to neighborhoods of Phoenix, Arizona.

This analysis led to the conclusion that debris flows originating in small mountain ranges in arid regions like the Sonoran Desert could pose a hazard. Two major precipitation events in the summer of generated 35 debris flows in the same study area of South Mountain—providing support for the importance of probability analysis as a key step in a hazards analysis in warm desert settings. Two distinct mechanisms generated the debris flows: intense precipitation on steep slopes in the first storm; and a firehose effect whereby runoff from the second storm was funneled rapidly by cleaned-out debris-flow chutes to remobilize Pleistocene debris-flow deposits.

When compared to a global database on debris flows, the storms were among the most intense to generate desert debris flows — indicating that storms of lesser intensity are capable of generating debris flows in warm desert settings. Thus, wetter climatic periods of intense rock decay are not needed to resupply desert slopes with fines; instead, a combination of dust deposition supplying fines and dirt cracking generating coarse clasts can re-arm chutes in a warm desert setting with abundant dust.

N2 – After recognition that debris flows co-occur with human activities, the next step in a hazards analysis involves estimating debris-flow probability. AB – After recognition that debris flows co-occur with human activities, the next step in a hazards analysis involves estimating debris-flow probability. Overview Fingerprint. Abstract After recognition that debris flows co-occur with human activities, the next step in a hazards analysis involves estimating debris-flow probability.

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David S. The peopling of the Americas is both the oldest and most frequently researched question in American archaeology. Although rarely considered, early art has the potential to provide insight into questions that may be obscured by other kinds of evidence, particularly stone tools. What part did art play in the peopling of the Americas? This question is addressed starting with a reconsideration of rock varnish chronometrics as applied to Great Basin, eastern California, petroglyphs.

This demonstrates, conservatively, that the petroglyph tradition began before 11, YBP, probably before 12, YBP, and potentially in the 14, years range.

(), who used radiocarbon dating to analyze a piece of root fragment found Results from VML dating give an age estimate of to years and the.

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Krysden A. Schantz , The College of Wooster Follow. The lava emplacement history of Ice Springs has been debated since Hoover first proposed his theory of emplacement. A key piece of information that could aid in finalizing an emplacement history is an age estimate for Ice Springs. Only one official age for Ice Springs has been documented by Valastro et al.

To confirm this age estimate, this study uses three different dating techniques suitable for young basalt: cosmogenic nuclide dating, varnish microlamination VML dating, and vegetation surveys. In total five cosmogenic samples, nine VML samples, and twenty-one vegetation quadrant data were collected in the field. The vegetation quadrant data show little correlation and are not considered a reliable method to date young basalt in arid environments.

Case Study: Custom Audiences for VMLY&R

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VML Dating Lab provides analysis services that yield rock varnish-based minimum-limiting surface exposure age estimates for surficial geological and.

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